Brachycephalic dogs often have under-recognised uncomfortable ophthalmic disease. These include;

  • abnormally prominent eyes, that are insufficiently protected by their eyelids (lagophthalmos)
  • increased incidence of hairs contacting the cornea from nasal fold trichiasis (normal hairs orientated towards the eye), medial canthal entropion (lids rolling in), and hairy caruncles (hair growing from conjunctiva at the medial canthus) 
  • Persistently overexposed cornea from macroblepharon (oversized opening between the upper and lower eyelids)
  • increased risk of traumatic proptosis (eyeball prolapse out of the eye socket getting trapped in front of the eyelids)
  • distichiasis and ectopic cilia (extra lashes implanted in the wrong location and causing direct trauma to the cornea) 
  • reduced corneal innervation and sensitivity which reduces blinking, tear production and impedes corneal healing 
  • prolapsed gland (cherry eye)and folded cartilage of the third eyelids

The frequent combination of the above disorders leads to an increased incidence of ocular surface disease such as dry eye, ulcerative keratitis (corneal ucleration with inflammation) and pigmentary keratitis (inflammation of the cornea with pigment). These ophthalmic disorders often go undetected by owners, however they can be painful and lead to
loss of vision or even the eye.

The BCU, will report on any ophthalmic disorders at the same time as airway surgery. Additionally, patients anaesthetised for elective (not emergency) treatment of an eye condition, will receive an airway examination and report.

French Bulldog